The last remaining laboratory of scientist, visionary and inventor Nikola Tesla has been sold this week by the Agfa Corporation to Friends of Science East, Inc. dba Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe. Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe is a 501 (c) 3 not-for-profit corporation dedicated to saving and restoring Wardenclyffe, with the aim of turning it into a science learning center and museum.
Wardenclyffe is a 15.69 acre site in Shoreham, New York, where Tesla planned to build his wireless communications and energy transmission tower in the early 1900s. The tower was completed, but only one test was made in July 1903. Shortly after, Tesla suffered some financial reversals, and in 1917, the tower was taken down and sold for scrap metal.
Tesla was one of the most influential scientists of the late 19th and early 20th century. His contributions to commercial electricity, radio, magnetism and the invention of the AC (alternating current) motor helped to usher in the Second Industrial Revolution. He also made contributions to the fields of robotics, remote control, radar, computer science, ballistics, nuclear physics and theoretical physics. Nikola Tesla was one of the most famous scientists of his time in the United States, “but because of his eccentric personality and somewhat unbelievable and bizarre claims about scientific and technological developments, Tesla became disliked and was regarded as a mad scientist.”
Tesla is perhaps best known today for the controversy over the invention of the radio. A debate still rages between Tesla supporters and those who favor Guglielmo Marconi over who truly invented the first radio. According to the US Supreme Court in 1947, it was Tesla.
Newsday reports Friends of Science East, Inc. partnered with online comic Matthew Inman of TheOatmeal.com in August 2012 to host an online crowdfunding project on Indiegogo.com. They raised $1.37 million towards the purchase price of the Wardenclyffe site. The campaign reached the $1 million mark in just over a week, with the help of 33,000 contributors from 108 countries.
“This is a major milestone in our almost two-decade effort to save this historically and scientifically significant site. We have been pursuing this dream with confidence that we would eventually succeed,” said Gene Genova, Vice President of the organization, in a recent statement. “We are very excited to be able to finally set foot on the grounds where Tesla walked and worked.”
Friends of Science East, Inc. isn’t done yet, though.
“Now begin the next important steps in raising the money needed to restore the historic laboratory,” said Mary Daum, treasurer. “We estimate that we will need to raise about $10 million to create a science learning center and museum worthy of Tesla and his legacy. We invite everyone who believes in science education and in recognizing Tesla for his many contributions to society to join in helping to make this dream a reality.”
The organization is planning many fundraising events in the future to raise the capital to restore and run the site as a museum. You can find more information on these events on their website, at the Facebook page, and via Twitter.
The Seamless Gut by i-heart-histo
Each region of your digestive tract is histologically different.
Specialized in its own unique way to impart a specific function. When the different regions of these tubes work together they function as a seamless system that protects, absorbs and secretes. Ensuring that we digest the products we ingest, remove the nutrients that we need and dispose of those that we don’t.
Students of histology frequently meditate on the differences between these regions in an attempt to correlate structure with function and categorize regions based on appearance.
The seamless gut tube demonstrates these differences in a single image allowing junior histologists to compare and marvel in the functional specializations of each region.
1. Esophagus (middle third)
Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium provides protection against the abrasive forces encountered as the bolus is transmitted toward the stomach.
A muscularis externa composed of a unique smooth and skeletal muscle mix.
2. Stomach (fundus)
Large folds of mucosa and submucosa form rugae, which allow the stomach to distend as it fills with food.
Glandular epithelium composed of gastric pits opening into deep gastric glands. These contain numerous cells each with their own role to play in the digestion process through secretion of either hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, mucous or hormones.
The mucosa becomes heavily folded to form villi, finger-like projections that increase the surface area across which absorption can occur.
Each simple columnar epithelial cell has a highly folded apical membrane forming microvilli, which still further increase the surface area for absorption.
The distinctive Brunner’s glands in the submucosa release a bicarbonate rich secretion into the duodenal lumen to neutralize the acidic contents released from the stomach and help prevent formation of a duodenal ulcer.
Villi, microvilli and plicae circulares (circular folds of the mucosa) are evident in the jejunum. It lacks any submucosal features which makes it easy to distinguish from duodenum and ileum.
The final section of the small intestine also contains villi and epithelial cells with microvilli.
Large lymphoid aggregates known as Peyer’s patches reside in the submucosa, breach into the lamina propria and making this a clear feature of ileum.
Surrounded by lymphoid nodules (similar to the ileum) but this vestigial region of gut tube has no villi or microvilli. Instead its mucosa contains deep crypts of Lieberkuhn lined by goblet cells that secret mucous.
Distinctive because of its large crypts of Lieberkuhn lined by goblet cells that produce large volumes of mucous. The mucous facilitates the passage of feces which become increasingly drier as more water is absorbed from them as they pass through the large intestine.
The muscularis mucosa has a distinctive arrangement in the colon also. The outer longitudinal layer of muscle no longer forms a sheet of smooth muscle around the tube, but is organized into three thin, evenly spaced bands called teniae coli.
Something to think about the next time you take a bite of your sandwich?